top of page


Family Influences

Parents play a significant role in the identity formation of adolescents. During adolescence, maintaining a balance between the desire for autonomy and the need for connectedness becomes crucial to one's sense of self.

(Cooper, 2011)

According to research from Cooper 2011, identity formation is facilitated by family relationships that are both individuated and connectedness. Individualized relationships encourage adolescents to develop their own point of view, while connectedness relationships provide a secure foundation from which to explore the expanding social worlds of adolescence.

High connectedness and low individuation is frequently associated with identity loss. Simultaneously, poor connectedness is associated with adolescents demonstrating identity uncertainty.

(Cooper, 2011)

Attachment to parents may have a role in identity formation. In this study, however, adolescents with stable attachments were significantly more likely to be identity attained than their peers who were identity diffused or identity denied.

(Arseth & others, 2009)


Peer Influences

Researchers have lately discovered a correlation between the capacity to explore one's identity during adolescence and emerging adulthood and the quality of one's friendships and romantic relationships.

(Galliher & Kerpelman, 2012)

A recent study indicated that when adolescents are comfortable with their close friends, an open and active exploration of identity contributes to the friendship's favorable character. (Deamen & others, 2012)

Friends were frequently a secure space for discussing identity-related experiences.

(McLean & Jennings, 2012)


Ethnicity Influences

Environmental conditions influence the identity formation of ethnic minority youth. In the United States, many youth from racial or ethnic minorities reside in metropolitan areas with poor socioeconomic status, where there is little support for the formation of a positive identity. Many of these adolescents reside in areas of concentrated poverty, are exposed to drugs, gangs, and criminal activity, and interact with youth and adults who have dropped out of school or are unemployed. In such contexts, youth support organizations and programs can significantly contribute to identity formation.

(Phinney & Baldelomar, 2011).

Literature Review in Adolescence Identity Development


bottom of page