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Memory


WORKING MEMORY

(Santrock, 2014)




















Memory Span Strategies


Organization


When children organize information when encoding it, their memory improves. Consider the following example:

Recall the twelve months of the year as quickly as possible. How much time did it take you? What was the sequence of your recalls? You most likely replied "a few seconds" and "in chronological order."

Organizing is a method that older children and adults typically employ to aid in information retention. Most preschoolers don't use organizational techniques; When they need to remember something, they are more likely to use organization in middle and late childhood.

(Flavell, Miller, & Miller, 2002)


 

Elaboration


Elaboration, which involves more in-depth information processing, is another important strategy. Memory improves when people engage in elaboration. Providing examples is a useful method for elaborating information. Self-reference, for instance, is a useful method for expanding on information. Children are more likely to remember information when they consider their own personal associations with it.


Developmentally, the use of elaboration changes. Elaboration is more common among adolescents than among children. Elaboration strategies can be taught to children of elementary school age to use on a learning task, but they will be less likely to use them on other learning tasks in the future than adolescents will.

(Pressley, 2003; Schneider, 2011)


 

Imagery


Another method for improving memory is to create mental images. Using imagery to remember verbal information, on the other hand, works better for older children than for younger children. Mental imagery can assist young schoolchildren in remembering pictures.

(Schneider, 2004, 2011)


 

Teaching Strategies


Good strategy of information processing is to encourage children to understand the material that needs to be remembered rather than memorizing it.


 

Memory-Relevant Language

The amount of memory-relevant language used by teachers to encourage students to remember information varies greatly.

A research that involved extensive observations of a number of first-grade teachers in the classroom that the teachers rarely used strategy suggestions or metacognitive (thinking about thinking) questions in the time segments observed. In this study, lower-achieving students' achievement increased when they were placed in classrooms with teachers classified as "high-mnemonic teachers," who frequently embedded memory-relevant information in their teaching.

(Ornstein, Coffman, & Grammer, 2007, 2009; Ornstein & others, 2010)



 

Vary lesson themes

Continue with variety on the instructional information and link early and often. These are memory development research suggestions for enhancing the consolidation and memory consolidation of children's newly acquired knowledge.

Variations on a lesson theme enhance the number of associations in memory storage, whereas linking widens the network of associations in memory storage; both tactics improve the number of retrieval routes.

(Bauer, 2009)




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